India is the largest producer, consumer and exporter of turmeric in the world. Indian turmeric is considered to be the best in the world market because of its high curcumin content. India accounts for about 80 per cent of world turmeric production and 60 per cent of world exports. Other major producers are Pakistan, China, Haiti, Jamaica, Peru, Taiwan and Thailand. Asian countries consume much of their turmeric production.
Climate & Harvesting
Fresh turmeric arrival in Erode starts from mid January and continues till June. Stored product is available throughout the year. During January to April, turmeric from Mysore region comes to Erode market regularly. In Tamil Nadu there is much demand for Mysore region turmeric among the traders, so the arrivals from that region are increasing over years. The arrivals in Erode market starts with the crop from Mysore during January to April, Mysore crop is followed by Anthiyur, Bhavani, Gobi, Sathyamangalam, Thondamuthur, Kodumudi and Modakurichi regions respectively.
The important turmeric growing States in India are, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Orissa, Maharastra, Assam, Kerala, Karnataka and West Bengal, in which Andhra Pradesh occupies 40 per cent of total turmeric area followed by Orissa and Tamil Nadu occupying 17 per cent and 13 per cent of total turmeric area respectively. In terms of production Andhra Pradesh accounts 60 per cent of total turmeric production in India followed by Tamil Nadu (13 per cent) and Orissa (12 per cent).
Area under Turmeric cultivation has declined in last two years. Chart 1 describes declining trend in area under turmeric cultivation. From 2003 to 2006 there was a steep increase in the area under turmeric cultivation. However from 2006 the area has been declining under turmeric cultivation. According to traders, the area in Erode is said to be increase by 20%-30% compare to last year.
Chart 1: Turmeric area in 000 hectare
Decline in area could be due to following reasons.
- Labour cost has increased drastically due too tedious process in Turmeric.
- Turmeric is 9 months crop compare to other crop like Maize (3 months), Soya and cotton.
- Lack of water availability during summer.
- Higher realization in other crop grown in the same area.
Yield of turmeric has declined between 2005 and 2007. However in the current season, yield is expected to increase on the back of favorable weather. Chart 2 reveals changing yield pattern for turmeric. The yield had been in a range of 4000-5000 KG/HA between 2004 and 2009. This year we expect it to increase by 5% compare to last year.
Chart 2: Turmeric yield in kg/ha
Production this year is estimated to be around 4.5-4.8 million bags of 60 kg each in India according to traders. Last year the production was said to be 4.0-4.2 million bags. Increase in yield have partially offset decline in area under production on year on year basis. Production data given by spices board has a huge variation compare to traders estimate. We would consider spices board figure for our analysis due to their authenticity. Production is estimated to be 800000 tonnes in the current season; this is quite near to last year production.
Chart 3: Turmeric production in 000 tonnes
Chart 3 describes turmeric production in India from 1997-2009. The declining trend in production clearly tells us the shift of interest among farmers to other crops. This year we may touch last years production due to slightly better weather conditions.