Turmeric is an important spice grown in India since ancient times. It is used in food items, cosmetic, and medicine. It is widely used as a spice in South Asian and Middle Eastern cooking. In USA and Europe also, it is basically used as spice in the food industry. Turmeric lends curry its distinctive yellow color and flavor. In India, Turmeric is also used in Ayurveda and Unani medicines. These days turmeric is promoted as a dietary supplement for a variety of conditions, including arthritis, digestive disorders, respiratory infections, allergies, liver disease, depression, and many others. It is used as an antioxidant, use to treat arthritis, used for cancer treatment, improve liver function, cardiovascular protection etc. Many of its traditional uses are supported by scientific evidence.

Curcumin, Curcuminoids, Cymene, Isdemethoxy curcumin, Desmethoxycurcumin, Diarylheptanoids are the Chemical constituents of Turmeric. Curcumin gives turmeric its yellow color.

The global production of turmeric is nearly 1.5 million tons per annum. India dominates the world production scenario contributing 75 to 80% followed by Vietnam, China, Indonesia, Myanmar, Nigeria and Bangladesh. India exports turmeric in whole as well the value-added forms like turmeric powder and turmeric/Curcumin Oleoresin. India has got a huge domestic market for turmeric consuming almost 85% of the production. In the export front, 9% of our production is exported as whole turmeric, 5% as turmeric powder and 2% converted into high-end value- added products like Oleoresins/Curcumin powder.

Even though our export of turmeric is just 15% of the production, we dominate the international markets as the supply form other producing countries is limited. In 2020-21, we earned foreign exchange worth of Rs.2276.75 Crs. (US$ 303.48 million) by exporting turmeric whole and its value-added products like turmeric powder, turmeric oleoresin, Curcumin powder and turmeric oil.



India’s recent turmeric production is around 1.10 million tons from an area of 2, 94,542 hectares. Telangana produces 32.8% followed by Maharashtra 18.6% Karnataka 11.3%, Tamil Nadu 8.2% and Andhra Pradesh 6.1%. The State wise area and production of Turmeric is given in table 1. and figure 1

State wise area and production of Turmeric in India

States 2019-20 2020-21 2020-21
Area (Hector) Production (MT) Area (Hector) Production (MT) % In total Production
Telangana 55444 386596 49000 313000 28.40%
Karnataka 20740 132668 21496 130928 11.88%
Tamil Nadu 18432 96254 20894 86513 7.85%
Andhra Pradesh 29717 71321 30518 73244 6.65%
West Bengal 17812 45648 17749 45698 4.15%
Orissa 27869 43615 27867 43611 3.96%
Madhya Pradesh 16272 57067 17053 60097 5.45%
Maharashtra 54248 218873 57669 226714 20.57%
Mizoram 7653 29510 7653 29510 2.68%
Assam 17629 22829 16359 20885 1.90%
Gujarat 4570 18181 7653 29510 2.68%
Haryana 1753 4061 1331 3009 0.27%
Total (including other states) 296181 1178750 294542 1101920 100.00%

Production Turmeric in India (2020-21)

On analysing the production statistics, it has been observed that not much growth has been achieved in the production of turmeric in India during the last one decade. The reason being that neither any significant area expansion nor the productivity increase has happened during the last one decade. The average productivity in the early years of the decade was around 5000 kg/hect. This has in fact come down to less than 4000 kg/hect in the last 4 years. The area expansion was not significant enough to compensate the decline in productivity. The total area, production and productivity of turmeric in India is given in table 2 and figure 2.

Area, Production and Productivity of Turmeric in India

Year Area (Hect) Prodn. (MT) Pdty (Kg/Hect)
2010-11 195000 993000 5092
2011-12 218600 1166800 5337
2012-13 194200 971100 5000
2013-14 232670 1189890 5114
2014-15 184000 830000 4511
2015-16 185900 943300 5074
2016-17 221780 1056100 4762
2017-18 231637 863460 3727
2018-19 261922 957130 3654
2019-20 296181 1178750 3980
2020-21 294542 1101920 3741

Trend in Production of Turmeric in india (in tonns)

Role of State Governments in the Production of Turmeric

The State Governments are responsible for the production expansion of all the spices except Cardamom. Spices Board looks after the production aspects of Cardamom, including replantation, post-harvest quality improvement and auction. Also, the Research activities of Cardamom is also with the Spices Board. With regard to other Spices including Turmeric, the role of Spices Board begins from post-harvest only. Quality improvement programs like proper drying, storage etc. for Export Oriented production are coming under the purview of Spices Board. In brief, the production development such as area expansion, use of high yielding planting material etc. are the responsibility of concerned state Governments. The State Governments has to initiate action for increasing the area under cultivation, wherever possible, and also make available the high yielding planting materials to the farmers.

The Indian Institute of Spices Research (IISR), Calicut has come up with high yielding verities of Turmeric with the productivity up to 38000 kg/hect. of fresh or 8500 kg/hect. of dry turmeric. By adopting the high yielding variety, the production can be doubled without further area expansion. The State Horticulture Departments of the major producing states like Telangana, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh has to take initiative to make available the high productivity seeds to the farmers.



As mentioned above, India is the major supplier of turmeric to the world. Turmeric In recent years, our export has shown an increasing trend.  In 2020-21, we have exported 1,83,000 tons of turmeric valued Rs.1676.60. In addition,1212 tons of value-added items exported during the year and earned Rs.600.16 Crs.

The item wise export of turmeric for the last three years is given in table 3 and figure 3.

Export of Turmeric and Turmeric Products from India

Products 2018-19 2019-20 2020-21
Qty Value Qty Value Qty Value
Turmeric whole 89508.00 82951.40 94680.00 73557.37 131450.00 109818.57
Turmeric Powder 44092.00 58664.60 42970.00 55133.66 51550.00 57841.43
Total 133600.00 141616.00 137650.00 128690.53 183000.00 167660.00
Turmeric Oil 4.13 94.70 19.17 255.05 5.04 120.72
Turmeric Oleoresin 502.63 11191.80 584.93 14251.82 449.10 9249.23
Curcumin Powder 465.98 35098.90 672.66 44703.66 757.63 50645.71
Total high-end value-added products exports 972.74 46385.00 1276.36 59210.54 1211.76 60015.67
Grand Total 134573.00 188001.00 138925.96 187901.07 184211.76 227675.67

Export value of Turmeric and Turmeric Products from India (2020-21)

Export of Turmeric has shown significant increase in the last one decade. Export has gone up from 49250 tons in 2010-11 to 1,83,000 tons in 2020-21 recording a CAGR of 16%. The foreign exchange earned also increased from 702.85 Crs. to export earrings Rs.1676.60 Crs. Among the high-end value-added products, Curcumin powder is the most important one and in 2020-21, we have exported 757 tons valued Rs.506.45 Crs. The trend in export of turmeric is given in table 4 and figure 4.

Export of Turmeric from India

Year Qty (MT) Value (Rs. Lakhs)
2010-11 49250 70285.14
2011-12 79500 73434.36
2012-13 88513 55487.74
2013-14 77408 66608.41
2014-15 87683 74002.03
2015-16 88463 92129.38
2016-17 116500 124188.60
2017-18 107300 103567.60
2018-19 133600 141616.00
2019-20 137650 128690.50
2020-21(est) 183000 167660.00

Trend in Export of Turmeric and Turmeric Products from India

In the last one decade, the turmeric exports from India are showing a CAGR of 14.03%. If this growth rate persists, the export in 2025-26 will be 3,55,000 tons. However, the growth in exports of turmeric may be still higher considering its potential in the medicinal applications. The medicinal

properties of turmeric getting more acceptance in recent years especially in the context of COVID 19. This will further boost the demand for turmeric in USA and European countries.

USA, Iran, UAE, Malaysia, UK, Germany, Japan etc. are the major markets for Turmeric. It is important to note that the export volume of turmeric to these countries are consistent. In 2020-21, Bangladesh has become a largest market for Indian turmeric by importing 24126 tones valued Rs.161.37 Crs. This includes large quantity of fresh turmeric also. However, Bangladesh has not seen as a consistent buyer in terms of quantity. Iran was not a direct market for Indian turmeric in the last decade. Their requirement was met by UAE through re-exports. However, by 2010-11, the trade relationship with Iran improved and they initiated direct import of turmeric from India. Consequent to this, the turmeric import by UAE has come down from 16276 tons in 2011-12 to 6736 tons in 2029-20. At the same time, the import of Iran has gone up from 3800 tons to 14358 tons during the same period. The trend in export of turmeric to major countries is given in table 5 and figure 5.

Major Country wise export of Turmeric from India

Country 2018-19 2019-20 2020-21
Qty Value Qty Value Qty Value
Bangladesh 4277 3190.27 11602 12295.67 24126 16137.24
U.S.A 6435 11158.83 7340 16682.90 7276 15784.11
Iran 13431 10290.83 19062 19328.90 14358 11057.12
U.A.E 7952 6548.91 7461 6522.92 6736 7608.92
Malaysia 6562 6104.92 6937 6467.32 6956 6119.41
Morocco 6220 4911.81 8760 6767.64 8694 6074.84
U.K. 4417 4878.40 4561 5633.30 4225 5017.49
Germany 2872 3644.75 3636 5925.43 3628 4899.50
Netherlands 2897 3336.95 2778 3729.29 3349 4214.20
Saudi Arabia 4007 3379.36 4499 3692.24 4729 4177.89
Japan 2835 3392.81 2788 3866.40 3111 3823.60
Sri Lanka 5253 4462.32 5303 4579.33 4579 3780.04
South Africa 2736 2812.19 2507 2747.49 2874 2923.07
Iraq 2615 1815.02 4053 2963.08 3967 2526.39
Others 34791 33640.27 42313 40414.12 39039 34546.71
Total 107300 103567.60 133600 141616.00 137650 128690.50

Trend in Export of Turmeric to Major Importing countries



As indicated above, the export of turmeric and turmeric powder is growing at a CAGR of 14% and by 2025-26, the projected export would be 355000 tons. Turmeric powder constitutes 45% of the total exports.  Thus, the raw turmeric export would be 1,95,000 tons and the turmeric powder export would be 159750 tons. The conversion ratio for turmeric to turmeric powder is 75%. In addition, the high-end value-added products like turmeric Oleoresins and curcumin powder is now using around 20,000 to 25000 tons. Assuming a nominal annual growth rate of 5%, the export of these products may touch 2000 tons from the present level of 1200 tons. The raw material required for this will be nearly 33000 tons as the oleoresins content will be from 6 to 7%. Anticipated raw material requirement by 2025-26 is given in table 6.

Anticipated raw material requirement for Exports in 2025-26.

Items Estimated Exports by 2025-26 Raw material requirement by 2025-26
Raw Turmeric 195000 195000
Turmeric Powder 159750 213000
Oleoresins & Curcumin powder 2000 33000
Total 356750 441000

In order to meet the demand, there is a need for increased in production as the present growth rate in production in not adequate to fulfill the demand. If the production is not increased, more import will happen from other producing countries.



Nizamabad is the major market for turmeric as almost 40% of the total turmeric production has come from the undivided Andhra Pradesh. When Telangana was formed in 2014, the major turmeric producing districts Nizamabad, Karimnagar, Warangal and Adilabad has become part of it. The domestic prices are as reported by the APMC, Nizamabad if given in table 6 and figure 6.

Domestic and Export prices of Turmeric (Rs/kg)

Year Domestic price (farm gate) at Nizamabad Average Export Price
Turmeric Bulb Turmeric finger
2011-12 39.98 36.98 83.88
2012-13 39.50 40.04 57.30
2013-14 45.84 47.69 76.62
2014-15 52.06 52.16 75.69
2015-16 86.52 73.46 93.57
2016-17 62.37 68.97 97.18
2017-18 60.91 65.67 83.96
2018-19 60.37 64.06 92.67
2019-20 53.19 56.70 77.69
2020-21 51.08 56.18 71.06

Trend in Domestic and Export Price of Turmeric (Rs/Kg)

The average unit price of turmeric whole and value-added products is given in table 7. There is significant increase in the unit value added forms like Curcumin powder. However, its use and import demand is limited. However, there is scope for increasing its demand as its increased use in nutraceutical preparations. The unit value of various value-added products is given in table 7

Unit value of value-added products of Turmeric

Products Average Export Unit Value (Rs/Kg)
2018-19 2019-20 2020-21
Turmeric whole 92.67 77.69 83.54
Turmeric Powder 133.05 128.31 112.20
Total 106.00 93.49 91.62
Turmeric Oil 2292.98 1330.46 2395.24
Turmeric Oleoresin 2226.65 2436.50 2059.50
Curcumin Powder 7532.28 6645.80 6684.76
Total high-end value-added products. 4768.49 4639.02 4952.77
Grand Total 139.70 135.25 123.59



Even though India is the largest producer of Turmeric, substantial quantity is imported by the processing industry from other producing countries like Vietnam, Indonesia etc. Some of the industry sources say that turmeric is imported due to three reasons; the price advantage, inconsistent in the domestic supply and to mix with the domestic produce to get the consistency in the curcumin powder. However, the India’s domestic production and the price data is not justifying the first two reasons. The domestic production is over one million tons during the past five years and no scarcity has been reported during the period. The prices also eased in the last few years compared to the import price. Hence it can be safely concluded that the extraction industries use the imported material to mix with the domestic produce to get consistent color for the curcumin powder. Import of turmeric into India for the last few years is given in table 8.

Import of Turmeric in to India

Year Qty (MT) Value (Rs. Lakhs) Unit Value (Rs. /Kg)
2015-16 15,330 14634.60 95.46
2016-17 14,150 16498.20 116.60
2017-18 17,120 18433.60 107.67
2018-19 31020 30126.04 97.94
2019-20 28612 24678.43 86.00
2020-21 25798 22916.95 88.83

Vietnam is the major source of import of turmeric followed by Myanmar and Indonesia. The source wise Import of turmeric for the three years is given in table 8 and

Source wise import of Turmeric in to India

Country 2018-19 2019-20 2020-21
Qty (MT) Value (Rs. Lakhs) Qty (MT) Value (Rs. Lakhs) Qty (MT) Value (Rs. Lakhs)
Vietnam 14875 14594.59 11107 10525.51 7526 7276.72
Mynmar 3265 3130.14 5747 4313.39 4384 4449.24
Indonesia 6087 6217.04 4694 3992.69 6476 5162.73
Ethiopia 4137 2713.67 4728 2474.70 633 360.24
Djibouti 364 257.75 150 80.68 3480 1614.06
Thailand 182 350.05 785 1243.82 896 1402.81
Nigeria 710 808.81 432 311.99 1761 1627.15
Others 1627 2053.99 969 1735.65 642 1024.00
Total 31020 30126.04 28612 24678.43 25798 22916.95

Source wise import of Turmeric into India (Quantity)

Indonesia is emerging as producer of turmeric. Its production has increased from 96980 tons in 2011 to 193930 tons in 2020. If the trend continues, Indonesia will become another major source for turmeric in the world. Production of Turmeric in Indonesia is given in table 9.

Production of Turmeric in Indonesia

Year Production (Tons)
2011 96980
2012 113300
2013 120730
2014 112090
2015 113100
2016 107770
2017 128340
2018 203460
2019 190910
2020 193930



By improving the quality of the turmeric produced in India and also adopting the specific varieties released by the Indian Institute of Spices Research (IISR), Calicut, the import can be minimized. For example, a large volume of turmeric coming to the Nizamabad market in Telangana contains high moisture and is inferior in quality for further processing. Turmeric has been grown extensively in Kasaba, Santhemarahalli and Haradanahalli hoblis of Chamarajanagar taluk and in parts of Gundlupet and Kollegal taluks. By giving more attention to these areas the quality can be improved. The IISR has released eight varieties of turmeric with Curcumin content 5% to 7.9%.oil Oleoresins up to 16% and Oil content up to 7% and high productivity. Identifying suitable locations, some of these varieties can be cultivated as per the requirement of the processing industries. North eastern states like Meghalaya, Tripura where default organic cultivation is happening may be ideal location for extended cultivation.



India is the major producer and supplier of turmeric to the world market. In recent years production of turmeric in other countries like Vietnam, Indonesia, China, Thailand has increased from their export figures especially to India. Indonesia’s production has increased from 96980 tons in 2011 to 193930 tons in 2020. However, India’s production was almost stable with little ups and down in certain years. The Turmeric producing states like Telangana, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh has to take efforts to increase the productivity of turmeric in the absence of area expansion. The high yielding varieties developed by the Indian Institute of Research (IISR); Calicut have to be used for cultivation to increase production. Turmeric whole and Turmeric powder are the major items exported from India. In addition to this, high-end value-added products like Curcumin powder and Turmeric Oleoresins are also exported from India. In spite of a large production base, we import 25000 tons to 30,000 tons of Turmeric for processing. The industry sources say that this imported variety is added to the domestic produce to get consistency in the Curcumin powder. This import can be minimized as there is large number of indigenously developed, high quality turmeric is available here. The concerned state governments have to take initiative for this. In the quality aspect also, the higher moisture content in the produce available in India also high forcing the industry to import from other countries. Hence there is urgent need for improving the quality of the turmeric produced in India.

Based on the projected exports of turmeric and its products, the estimated quantity for export will be nearly 4,50,000 tones. With the huge domestic demand, unless the production has been increased in tune with the demand, the industry has to depend on the import from other producing countries.